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Peter Bergholz

In terms of the lower temperature limits, the eutectic point of water is -40C. Several recent studies have looked at metabolics and gene expression as low as -15C. There are groups experimenting with bacteria in vitrious ice (ice as a glass) down to -187C. In terms of growth rates, we see aerobic heterotrophs doubling every few days in rich media down to -6C and every couple weeks in mineral media with a single C-source.

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